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Caching Responses in Expressjs

On a recent project, I found myself writing a web service in Node via Azure Mobile Services, and realized that the client pattern was to call a common set of requests on startup and in early interactions, and then dig down into more detailed requests.  Furthermore, these common requests were common across just about all clients.  Caching these responses seemed like a natural thing to do, but the problem was that i couldn't just cache the response object, I had to replay the previous response so that the same status, headers, and body would be sent.  Also I wanted the ability to control whether a request was cached based on the content, and to avoid caching error responses.  I decided to write it in such a way that others could potentially use it, and I've put it up on GitHub.

For the backbone, I wrote a simple object - Replayer - that allows you to wrap an object, trapping all function calls and recording all parameters given, and then allowing you to replay those calls on another object instance.  It does this by making a proxy function for all functions on the object:

function makeProxy(obj, replayer, fnName) {
    return function() {
        var args =;
        replayer.record.push([ fnName, args ]);
        var result;
        if (args.length == 1) {
            result = obj[fnName].call(obj, args[0]);
        } else {
            result = obj[fnName].call(obj, args); 
        return result === obj ? replayer : result;        

Note that last line - this allows method-chaining APIs to work correctly, so res.status(200).body(data) works as expected, with both status and body being correctly recorded.

I use this "Replayer" (packaged on GitHub independently, in case it's useful on its own) within the Express Memoizer to record all express request/response functions, leaving the actual memoizer function pretty clean:

Memoizer.prototype.memoize = function (fn) {
    var theCache = this.cache;
    var shouldCacheReq = this.shouldCacheRequest;
    var shouldCacheRes = this.shouldCacheResponse;
    return function(req, res) {
        if (shouldCacheReq(req)) {
            var key = requestKey(req);
            if (theCache.has(key)) {
                var prevRes = theCache.get(key);
                if (shouldCacheRes(prevRes.getWrapped())) {
            var fakeRes =;
            theCache.set(key, fakeRes);
            fn(req, fakeRes);
        } else {
            fn(req, res);

This checks the predicate for the incoming request to determine whether it should be cached (if not, the call is just passed through), and then checks the cache to see if the request is already cached.  If so, it pulls the cached replayer instance, determines whether it should have been cached, and if so then replays it on the current response object.


I was doing this to solve a particular problem, and also to learn how to do some things in JS that I'm used to doing in other languages, so there are plenty of caveats to this solution (and there might be other solutions out there, although none of the existing memoization node packages seemed to do what I needed).  I've documented them all in the in each project, but I'll outline a few here as well.  First off, the Replayer has three main caveats that would prevent wide adoption, but didn't impact my use:

  1. It only wraps objects, so not on built-ins like String/Number.
  2. It stores the arguments literally, not in some serialized and then re-hydrated form, meaning that mutable objects could potentially change between the recording and the playback.
  3. It doesn't support async methods, so no invocation of callbacks, etc.

Additionally, it basically "duck-types" on playback, attempting replay on whatever you've passed in, so if you've wrapped an object that has an indexOf method, and eventually play it back on a string, it should "work", but might not be the behavior you need (it will, however, be the behavior you deserve).  The Memoizer inherits these caveats, and additionally has whatever caveats are inherited by the cache implementation you use.  In addition, the response predicate is only checked on retrieval from the cache, so that there's no ordering dependence on how the caller chooses to invoke response methods, and the memoizer doesn't need to keep track of when/whether the response has completed.

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